Constitution of the Republic of Belarus

The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus is the Fundamental Law of the state, which has supreme legal force and direct effect in the entire territory of the country. The Constitution sets forth fundamental principles for the regulation of legal, political and economic system of the state. The fundamental law guarantees the protection of inalienable human rights, sets forth mutual obligations of citizens and the state, and establishes the procedure for the formation and functioning of public authorities. The provisions of the Constitution are further elaborated in the current legislation.
Constitution of the Republic of Belarus

The Constitution of Belarus was adopted on 15 March 1994 by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Belarus. It is the first Constitution in the history of sovereign Belarus and the fifth Constitution of Belarus in succession (after the October Revolution of 1917).

In 1996, a national referendum on the revised Constitution took place.

The Constitution was amended at the next referendum on 17 October 2004.

In accordance with Law of the Republic of Belarus No. 124-З of 12 October 2021, amendments concerning the holding of parliamentary elections on a single voting day.

The next national referendum on amending and expanding the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus took place on 27 February 2022. As a result, the preamble and 85 articles were revised, 11 new articles were introduced, two articles were excluded. Chapter 31 “Belarusian People’s Congress” was added.

The Constitution has 9 sections, 9 chapters and 156 articles.

The most important constitutional norm is set forth in Article 2, which defines the hierarchy of values in the country. According to this Article, the human being, his/her rights, freedoms and their guaranteed implementation are the supreme value and goal of the society and the state.

The main principles that permeate the norms of the Constitution include:

  • the rule of law;
  • guarantees and respect for human and civil rights;
  • democratic procedure of formation of public authorities.

The Constitution embodies the historical experience of the formation of the Belarusian statehood. It is based on the inalienable sovereign right of the Belarusian people to determine their own destiny and to be a full-fledged member of the global community.