Structure of the Belarusian State

The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus of 1994, as amended and supplemented by the national referendums of 24 November 1996, 17 October 2004 and 27 February 2022, provides for the fundamental structure of the Belarusian state.

The Republic of Belarus is a unitary democratic welfare and rule-of-law state.

The Republic of Belarus exercises supreme control and absolute authority over its territory and implements its domestic and foreign policies in an independent manner.

The human being, his/her rights and freedoms and their guaranteed implementation are of the highest importance and the supreme goal of society and the State.

The democratic foundations of the Belarusian statehood guarantee diversity of political institutions, ideologies and views.

The Republic of Belarus is guided by the principle of the rule of law. The state, all of its public authorities and officials act within the limits of the Constitution and the legislative acts adopted in accordance with it.

Belarus is a presidential republic.

The Head of State is the President of the Republic of Belarus.

Interaction between public authorities

The state authority in the Republic of Belarus is exercised on the basis of separation of powers into legislative, executive and judicial branches. Essentially, this principle prevents concentration of all power in the hands of one particular government body, it is instead divided between three branches of government. These branches are independent within their powers: they interact with each other on the basis of mutual checks and balances.

The key role is assigned to the Head of State. Not belonging to any of the branches of government, the President of the Republic of Belarus is given the necessary constitutional powers that allow him to ensure the interaction between public authorities and adequate performance of their functions. This model makes the state mechanism stable and consistent and prevents confrontation between the branches of government.

Interacting with the legislature, the President has the right to initiate legislation and is empowered to sign or reject laws. The President has the right to adopt decrees, special acts that have the force of a law. Decrees and orders of the President are mandatory all over the territory of Belarus.

The President has a say in the formation and functioning of the executive branch. With the consent of the House of Representatives, the President appoints the Prime Minister. The President determines the structure of the Government of the Republic of Belarus, appoints and dismisses Deputy Prime Ministers, Ministers and other members of the Government, decides on the resignation of the Government or its members, has the right to preside at meetings of the Government of the Republic of Belarus and to repeal acts of the Government. Decisions made by the President are binding on the Government.

Vesting the Head of State with the appropriate powers also means assigning him a duty that can not be assigned to any other government body – to act as a guarantor of the Constitution, human and civil rights and freedoms.

The President represents the unity of the people, guarantees the implementation of the main objectives of domestic and foreign policies, and represents the Republic of Belarus in relations with other states and international organizations.

The President takes measures to protect the sovereignty of the Republic of Belarus, its national security and territorial integrity.