The Republic of Belarus exercises supreme control and absolute authority over the entire territory and implements an independent domestic and foreign policy.
The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus was adopted in 1994 and amended at the national referenda on 24 November 1996 and 17 October 2004.
Belarus is a presidential republicThe President of the Republic of Belarus is the Head of State, the guarantor of the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus, the rights and freedoms of man and citizen. The President personifies the unity of the nation, guarantees the implementation of the main guidelines of the domestic and foreign policy, represents the Republic of Belarus in relations with other states and international organizations.
The President takes measures to protect the sovereignty of the Republic of Belarus, its national security and territorial integrity. One of the main functions vested in the President is to ensure political and economic stability in the country.
The President enjoys immunity; his honor and dignity are protected by the law.
The President is elected directly by the people of the Republic of Belarus for a term of office of five years on the basis of universal, free, equal, direct suffrage.
Legislative PowerThe legislative power is exercised by a bicameral parliament – the National Assembly of the Republic of Belarus.
The lower chamber is the House of Representatives; the upper chamber is the Council of the Republic.
The Parliament is elected for four years.
The House of Representatives consists of 110 members who are elected in their constituencies and represent the interests of citizens.
The Council of the Republic is the chamber of territorial representation. It consists of 56 members representing every oblast and the city of Minsk (eight from each) who are elected by secret vote at sessions of local councils of deputies. Eight members of the Council of the Republic are appointed by the President.
The right of legislative initiative is vested in the President, members of the House of Representatives, members of the Council of the Republic, the government and citizens eligible to vote (at least 50,000 signatures are required) and is exercised through the House of Representatives.
Executive PowerExecutive power in the country is exercised by the government – the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus – which is the central body of state administration.
The Prime Minister is the head of government.
In its activity the government is accountable to the President and responsible to the Parliament of the Republic of Belarus. The government relinquishes powers to the President-elect of the Republic of Belarus.
Judicial power in the Republic of Belarus is vested in courts. The judicial system is based on the principles of territorial delineation and specialization.
The judicial system consists of the Constitutional Court and a system of courts of general jurisdiction.
Review of the constitutionality of normative acts in the state is exercised by the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Belarus.The Supreme Court is a leading court of general jurisdiction and a supreme judicial body which handles civil, criminal, administrative and economic cases.